M.PLOPA PSYCHOLOGIA RODZINY PDF

Psychologia rodziny teoria i badania [Mieczyslaw Plopa] on *FREE * shipping on qualifying offers. Publikacja jest proba przedstawienia zarowno. Praca i rodzina. Konflikt czy synergia? [Work and Family. Conflict or Synergy?] Warszawa: WydawnictwVizja Press & IT. Plopa, M. (). Psychologia rodziny. Jan M Plopa. Plopa, M. (). Psychologia rodziny. Teoria i badania. Kraków: Oficyna Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar Socjologia rodziny.

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A dual-career marriage is a modern family model, within which both spouses realize, on the one hand, broadly defined professional careers under conditions of competitive job market and competitive forms of employment, often occupying managerial positions; and life careers on the other hand, those related to family, marital roles, housekeeping and earning the livelihood.

As compared with traditional models and egalitarian partnerships, a dual-career marriage involves more sacrifices and threats, but can also provide many benefits. The study was conducted during and involved examining a total of couples in dual-career marriages participantsi. All investigated participants in dual. The control group was composed of egalitarian partnerships and traditional marriages.

In order to verify the research questions and hypotheses stated above, four diagnostic tools were used: Introduction The transformations that are presently affecting the social, ethical and cultural areas of human life translate into changes in the scope of fulfilling life roles, including professional career or preferred consumption patterns.

The lack of experiences which should result from changeable and diversified roles is, as the author suggests, the largest threat that can lead to low mobility — both psychical and in life in general Gustafson, The notion of life quality was many years ago associated exclusively with financial satisfaction, determined by the possessed goods and financial resources.

The understanding of life quality was later gradually expanded to include non-material values, mainly freedom, health and happiness.

Many terms are used to describe it presently: Alongside with happiness and well-being, it is an effect of progressive human growth, which is a special process of working out the standards and criteria serving to compare the information obtained in time. As demonstrated by the results of numerous studies Rook, Dooley, Catalano, ; Rostowska, k.plopa, individuals experiencing satisfaction with their own life and its particular areas, are able to set out clear and realistic life goals, take pleasure in their own accomplishments, and cope with the toil of every-day reality and stress more effectively.

According to Popielskithe structure of a sense of purpose in life is built up of four components: These two domains involve specific tasks and requirements an individual will confront, and the level of commitment in realizing psychologka is determined by factors of personal and social nature.

Regardless of sex, these are therefore important areas of self-realization for a present-day individual Whitehead, Grzywacz and Marks ; Grzywacz, emphasize the complexity of the relationship between said areas of human functioning, pointing out to the twofold nature of this dependency — either conflicting or facilitating.

In addition, authors show that the complexity of analyzed interactions can also apply to factors mediating this process. For example, long working hours can lead to a growing sense of fatigue and the spillover of job-related stress into family life, but on the other hand strona Having analyzed the available literature on the issues of how professional and family life interact, one can notice two main rodzint perspectives: Later Greenhaus and Beutell ; Baka, defined role conflict as incoherent requirements at work and in family life, the problem being that they mutually make it difficult to accomplish various tasks.

Duxbury and Higginsdefine work-family conflict as one occurring when requirements connected with different life roles are incoherent and incompatible, and committing to one of the roles makes it difficult to commit to the other. So fundamentally three forms of work-family conflict are singled out: Meanwhile the perspective of positive influence has postulated the processes of mutual psycgologia and facilitation between multiple roles.

According to that view, performing one role, e.

Psychologia rodziny: teoria i badania – Mieczysław Plopa – Google Books

When discussing mutual interactions between professional and family life, one is not to forget about the directivity of those relations. The issue was therefore presented as a one-way relationship Parasuraman, Greenhaus, It was then that the bidirectional nature of influence between professional and family life was strona From both the perspective of an organization and an individual, the growth of professional and social competences is an invaluable asset stemming from the process of balancing life roles.

For example, professional activity of women, having grown over the last years, determines their increasing education levels, professionalism and competitiveness on the job market, consequently becoming a challenge for men. And it is not limited only to developing expert professional competences, but interpersonal and intrapersonal competences as well, where individuals get the chance to improve specific skills within themselves, e.

A significant positive link was shown to exist between job satisfaction and marital satisfaction in the process of coping with problems and stress Rostowski, One should also not forget about the important issue of supplying positive standards for the youngest family members, standards that foster activity, resourcefulness, expand ambitions, and stimulate intellectual development.

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However, the process of adapting oneself to the professional environment is not always successful, strona The overspill between the areas of work and family is frequently negative in character. According to Janicka negative consequences of balancing professional and family roles can be divided into four main categories — behavioral, psychological, health-related and a social one. Many researchers have found that in individuals who cannot balance the domains analyzed here, the described dependencies include increasing depression symptoms, suicidal thoughts and psychosomatic disorders circulatory, respiratory or alimentary disturbances; Duxbury, Higgins, Conflicts experienced between areas of work and family can also significantly impinge on the quality of marital relationships and determine tensions between partners, particularly when accompanied by mutual competition and burdening with domestic duties, as is presently the case in two-career relationships Duxbury, Higgins, ; Rostowski, Rostowska, ; Rostowska, Conflicts resulting from the work-family relation generate difficulties also in its social aspect Frone, Yardley, Markel,after: A dual-career relationship is a situation where this intermingling occurs in its extreme.

Economic and social transformations we have been witnessing since the mid-XX century, as well as related processes: More and more common are egalitarian partnerships or dual-career couples where both spouses are professional workers and bear the responsibility of upbringing children and housekeeping Rostowski, Rostowska, However, when women engage more in professional work, it does not always mean than men take up more responsibilities at home; it rather means the scope of activities broadens for wives, more seldom for husbands.

A dual-career marriage is a modern family model, where both partners, on the one hand, pursue their professional careers — under conditions of a competitive job market and competitive forms of employment — which can be viewed as sequences of posts related to employment, roles, activities and experience acquired by an individual Arnold,after: Three subtypes of this kind of relationships can be singled out: Among undeniable advantages are: Nevertheless, it is very often emphasized in the literature of the subject that negative consequences coming from the specific character of these relationships occur as well.

Most often they come down to physical and emotional strains, time pressure, a considerable quantistrona Such success is, no doubt, a hard-earned one and requires both partners to be tolerant and mature. Research questions and hypotheses Considering the purposes formulated above, the following research questions were put forward: Does the sex of partners in a dual-career relationship determine differences within the degree to which each of them experiences a sense of purpose in life, stress, role conflict and satisfaction with individual areas of life?

Are there any statistically significant differences in levels of a sense of purpose in life, experienced stress, role conflicts and satisfaction with individual areas of life between spouses in dual-career relationships, traditional marriages and egalitarian partnerships?

Formulating these questions implied following research hypotheses: Taking into account the previous results on the matter Neault, Pickerell, ; Kosakowska, Petrus, it was expected that women in dual-career relationships strona Women who wish to reconcile intensive professional career with family roles often try to fulfill these roles at the expense of resting, sleeping or entertainment, which consequently can bring their mind and body to a state of emotional and physical exhaustion, and later on to lower well-being Janicka, Taking into consideration the specific character of dual-career marriages Anderson, Spruill, ; Rostowski, Rostowska, and the level of commitment of both partners to fulfill two life roles it was expected that the spouses in dual-career relationship, as compared with the control group, would be the ones to report the lowest levels of well-being, among other things due to intense stress, experiencing role conflicts more often and lacking a sense of purpose in life.

Participants The study was conducted during and involved examining a total of couples in dual-career marriages participantsi. All investigated participants in dual-career relationships had higher education, their age varied from 28 to 40 years and each marriage had at least 1 child.

Into the category of traditional marriages fell the relationships with an apparent traditional division of gender roles, i. All examined persons were inhabitants of an urban agglomeration. Methods In order to verify the research questions and hypotheses stated above, four diagnostic tools were used.

After having rkdziny research on a diverse sample of Polish population, the authors m.lopa their tool to be sufficiently valid and internally reliable. Reported stress levels were measured with the Stress Level Questionnaire created psychoogia Plopa and Makarowski Within the questionnaire we can single out one global scale whose result determines a generalized stress level and additionally subscales for measuring emotional tension, external stress, intrapsychic stress and a lie scale.

Results In the first research problem it was attempted to verify if sex has any influence on how the spouses in dual-career marriages score on a sense of purpose in life, stress, role conflict and satisfaction j.plopa life scales. Comparative analysis in this matter indicated that it was reasonable to pursue this kind of research, and also gave evidence supporting the hypothesis postulated in the corresponding section of the study H1.

No significant differences in reported levels of happiness were observed in spouses in dual-career relationships. Therefore the results obtained are in concert with the postulated hypothesis H2.

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It is intriguing, though, that despite significant differences in experiencing stress, role conflict and satisfaction between discussed groups, significant differences in the general index of a sense of purpose in life did not appear.

Plopa, Mieczysław (1948- ).

It seems all the more reasonable then to search for significant mediators of the link between role conflict and a sense of purpose in life in examined spouses in dual-career relationships — and that is what constituted the last of our research problems presented above. In the model presented below it has been assumed that satisfaction with professional accomplishments and stress level can act as mediating variables in the link between how the participants manage to reconcile their professional and family roles and to what degree they have a sense of purpose in life.

The results, as analyzed with the Amos 21 statistical package figure 1, table 1 indicate that the model generally fits the data acceptably well and its statistical power is satisfactory.

No significant differences between women and men were observed.

Role conflict and purpose in life mediating role of purpose in life and stress Independent variable: Work-Life Balance Dependent variable: Purpose in Life Mediating variables: Discussion The functioning of dual-career couples is connected with many challenges and threats on the one hand, but also with many areas of possible successes on the other.

So even though these relationship can in spite of all that can bring high level of satisfaction with life, a sense of happiness and self-realization, it is frequently not without a series of negative consequences, both in the area of physical health and psychical well-being, such as e.

The analysis of empirical material presented in this study is in keeping with the dichotomous picture of dual-career marriages, burdened with many threats and negative consequences, but also supported by many satisfying areas able to counter the influence of experienced stress, tension or role conflict Kosakowska, Petrus, Our studies reveal that the costs resulting from the specific character of how dual-career marriages operate, affect women more acutely and they significantly more often report the feeling of fatigue, tension, stress, enjoying no affirmation of life or negatively evaluating their lives.

The literature on the subject singles out three subtypes of these relationships — one involving a traditional division of gender roles, one involving a nontraditional division of roles and one based on an ideal partnership Rostowski, Rostowska, One can wonder, then, if the obtained findings particularly apply to the first of those subtypes. Even though they pursue the contemporary model of professional career, strona A peculiar paradox underlying the experienced stress and role conflicts can be noticed, one that consists in a specific split: Unfortunately these deliberations remain a theory only.

In the presented study we did not manage to monitor how the partners in two-career relationships regarded the issue of gender roles. Analyzing this dependency could reveal whether the traditional approach to gender roles is in a way one of the reasons for experiencing tension — as opposed to those more liberal and contemporary in their outlook.

Research carried out in the field of experiencing role conflicts by women demonstrate that this problem affects particularly those who have traditional, and not modern, views on gender roles, consequently generating greater psychological costs Zalewska, These analyses are therefore worth including in the studies yet to be conducted on this subject.

As previously mentioned, negative psychological consequences reported by partners in dual-career relationships are coupled with a higher level of satisfaction with their lives, achievements or financial situation.

Polskie Forum Psychologiczne

Therefore it seemed justifiable to search for variables significantly mediating the relations between experienced role conflict, experienced stress and a sense of purpose in life. The introduced model of these dependencies allows for an elaborate analysis of relations under discussion. Therefore, as long as what is realized by spouses in dual-career marriages brings them pleasure and binds them to a subjective feeling of achieving successes, both professional and personal, their subjective sense of life quality and meaning is protected, determining that they see conflicts, stresses and tensions as costs which need to be paid in exchange for a broadly defined success in life.

As previously mentioned, the model of two-career marriages can have many assets and lead to a sense of high life quality, but it happens for the price of experiencing stress and strona What seems important then, is that partners in such relationships are able to work out for themselves some effective ways of coping with stress plus some skills to hold off various tasks and duties, as well as to support each other in difficult times and care for the quality of marital bonds, so that they can achieve success in their relationship.

The dual-career commuter family: Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 17, 1, Stowarzyszenie Psychologia i Architektura. Women, men, work, and family.