Técnica quirúrgica. Anestesia general, intubación orotraqueal, decúbito dorsal, con rotación cefálica al lado contrario del dolor, craniectomía asterional de. vol número6 Editorial Craneotomía guiada por ultrasonografía bidimensional para . Tipo III: la misma técnica que en el grupo anterior, pero incluyendo el de los pacientes, los resultados y las complicaciones de cada técnica quirúrgica. de los 30 pacientes (craneotomía – 53,3 %; cranectomía – 3,3 %; reparación de La técnica de la duraplastia con poliesteruretano es sencilla: empleamos.

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Surgical treatment of isolated and syndromic craniosynostosis. Crzneotomia and complications in consecutive cases. Resultados y complicaciones en casos consecutivos. Hospital Infantil 12 de Octubre. To review the results and complications of the surgical treatment of craniosynostosis in consecutive patients treated between craneotkmia We used the classification of Whitaker et al.

Complications of each technique and time of patients’hospitalization were also recorded. The surgeries were classified in 12 different types according to the techniques used. Type I comprised endoscopic assisted osteotomies for sagittal synostosis 42 cases. Type II included sagittal suturectomy and expanding osteotomies 46 cases.

Type III encompassed procedures similar teecnica type II but that included frontal dismantling or frontal osteotomies in scaphocephaly 59 cases. Type IV referred to complete cranial vault remodelling holocranial dismantling in scaphocephaly 13 cases. Type V belonged to fronto-orbital remodelling without fronto-orbital bandeau in trigonocephaly 50 cases. Type VI included fronto-orbital remodelling without fronto-orbital bandeau in plagiocephaly 14 cases.

In Type VII cases of plagiocephaly with frontoorbital remodelling and fronto-orbital bandeau were comprised 14 cases. Type VIII consisted of occipital advancement in posterior plagiocephaly 1 case. Type IX included standard bilateral fronto-orbital advancement with expanding osteotomies 30 cases. Type X was used in multi-suture craniosynostosis 15 cases and consisted of holocranial dismantling complete cranial vault remodelling.

Type XI included occipital and suboccipital craniectomies in multiple suture craniosynostosis 10 cases and Type XII instances of fronto-orbital distraction 26 cases. The mortality rate of the series was 2 out of cases 0. These 2 patients died one year after surgery.

All complications were resolved without permanent deficit.

Mean age at surgery was 6. According to Whitaker et al’s classification, patients were classified into Category I Regarding to craniofacial conformation, Of the patients with poor results, 6. The most frequent complication was postoperative hyperthermia of crabeotomia origin The number of complications was higher in the group of re-operated patients In this subset of reoperations, infection accounted for In regard to the surgical procedures, endoscopic tecbica osteotomies presented the lowest rate of complications, followed by standard fronto-orbital advancement in multiple synostosis, trigonocephaly and plagiocephaly.

Abordaje retrosigmoideo

The highest number of complications occurred in complete cranial vault remodelling holocranial dismantling in scaphocephaly and multiple synostoses and after the use of internal osteogenic distractors. Of note, are two cases of iatrogenic basal encephalocele that occurred after combined fronto-facial distraction.

The best results were obtained in patients with isolated craniosynostosis and the worst in cases with syndromic and multi-suture craniosynostosis. The rate and severity of complications were related to the type of surgical procedure and was higher among patients undergoing re-operations.


The mean time of hospitalization was also modified by these factors. Finally, we report our considerations for the management of craniosynostosis taking into account each specific technique and the age at surgery, complication rates and the results of the whole series. La mortalidad de la craneotomai fue de 2 casos entre pacientes. The diagnosis and treatment of craniosynostosis tecica the last decade have been improved by new and different techniques for diagnosis and surgical treatment.

The use of 3-dimensional computerized tomography 3-D CT allows for a better vision of the skull, mostly of the cranial base.

With the new magnetic resonance imaging MRI we can see the anatomic alterations of the posterior region of the skull and ascertain their role in the pathophysiology of intracranial hypertension, especially caneotomia syndromic craniosynostosis 38, Intracranial pressure ICP monitoring enables the establishment of an appropriate management of these patients.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that reabsorbable osteosynthesis has improved the stability of the cranial assemblies, osteogenic distraction has contributed to find further indications in these treatments, and endoscopic approaches have made some of these procedures less invasive 5,24,26, Nevertheless, some problems regarding treatment of craniosynostosis still remain unanswered 6,22,30, Although some reports have addressed the global results of craniosynostosis management 16,17,41most of them are from the craneotonia decade of the 20 th century 29,30,41 and, in our opinion, they are not sufficient to establish a universal accepted algorithm of treatment.

The scarcity of available publications dealing with complications is also surprising. In addition, most of them are included in clinical series regarding general aspects of the craniosynostoses 16,41, or dealing with postoperative infection 13,25, To review our experience on ccraneotomia treatment of patients with craniosynostosis seen during the last 9 years, aiming at establishing an algorithm of treatment based on patients’ age at surgery, results and complications arising from the diverse surgical procedures.

The files of patients with craniosynostosis who underwent surgical procedures were retrospectively reviewed. Although our Craniofacial Unit started inour study comprises a 9 year span from to The reasons to choose this period include the widespread use of 3D-CT and MRI for diagnosis, the homogeneity of the surgical techniques utilized and the stability of the staff performing these procedures.

Reparación de la duramadre con poliesteruretano

Mean age of patients at the surgery was 6. All patients underwent transcranial procedures, such as diverse craniectomies and osteotomies. Reoperations quirutgica for 37 of surgical procedures Ten of these procedures were done at the time of the initial treatment posterior fossa craniectomy and occipital dismantling. Cases of facial advancement were not included in this series.

All children received at least two doses of anti-pneumococcal vaccine.

Prophylactic antibiotics were started preoperatively in all instances. We employed the classification of Whitaker and associates 45 to evaluate the surgical results: Complications were classified as cranial or extracranial, including those presenting for a long time-span that ranged from the immediate crzneotomia period to long-lasting craniolacunia appearing years after treatment.

Only osteosynthesis reabsorbable material was used. Infection was considered as cranial when either local signs of infection or subgaleal or intracranial swelling with concomitant fever were detected.

Therefore, cultures may have been negative as prophylactic antibiotics were used. On the other hand, to consider an infection qyirurgica extracranial, cultures must have been positive.


To complete this study, the mean hospital stay was evaluated relating it to each surgical procedure. Surgical procedures were classified into 11 different types: Endoscopic-assisted suturectomy and osteotomies. We started using this technique inhaving treated by this method 42 children whose mean age at surgery was of 4. The surgical technique Fig. Suturectomy and expanding osteotomies. This technique includes 46 cranoetomia whose mean age was 6.

Suturectomy and expanding osteotomies including frontal bone remodelling. Suturectomy and expanding osteotomies including frontal bone remodelling Fig. In cases with severe frontal bulging, shell osteotomies in the frontal bone or complete dismantling and remodelling were added to the standard technique type III. We operated with this procedure 59 patients mean age 6. Total cranial vault remodelling holocranial dismantling consisted of sagittal and bicoronal suturectomies with wide craniotomies for complete remodelling of qiirurgica cranial vault.

We usually carried out this technique in a single stage, changing the child’s position from supine to modified prone Fig. It was performed in 13 patients mean age Frontal remodelling without fronto-orbital “bandeau” Fig.

This quirurgicz has already been reported from our department 23,32 and consisted of a very low bilateral fronto-orbital craniotomy, drilling of the supra-orbital eminences and transposition of a selected parietal bone. The arrow shows the bone pieces necessary for a proper assembly. Frontal bilateral remodelling without frontal-orbital “bandeau”.

The technique is similar to the previously described 32 and included an extensive pterional resection. It was used in 16 cases 3 reoperations with a mean patients’ age at surgery of 10 months. Frontal bilateral remodelling with frontal-orbital “bandeau”. It was performed in 16 additional cases 3 reoperations whose mean age at surgery was 9. It consisted of a classic fronto-orbital remodelling with tongue-in-groove advancement, fronto-orbital bandeau and parietal to frontal transposition Fig.

Occipital remodelling was performed in a single case by occipital bilateral craniotomy. This method was performed in 30 patients 8 reoperations with a mean age of 9 months and comprised 10 cases with non-syndromic multi-suture craniosynostosis cranrotomia 15 with craniofacial syndromes 5 Crouzon, 5 Apert, 3 Pfeiffer and 2 Saethre-Chotzen.

Standard bilateral fronto-orbital advancement. Holocranial dismantling total vault remodelling. It consisted of extensive frontal, parietal and occipital craniotomies to achieve a complete vault remodelling performed through a bicoronal incision. As in type V technique used for scaphocephaly, the patient is changed from supine to prone position in the same surgical session. Fifteen children 8 reoperations, mean age of 8.

It was performed in uqirurgica cases for the quirurgicq of multiple synostosis of the quiruurgica region of the skull.

Three children suffered from multi-suture tfcnica craniosynostosis and 7 from craniofacial syndromes 3 with Crouzon’s, 1 with Apert’s, 1 with Pfeiffer’s syndrome and 2 with cloverleaf skull. All of them had ton-sillar herniation at MRI, 2 cases presented cervical syringomyelic cavities and 7 cases developed hydrocephalus. Due to huge venous anomalies of the posterior fossa only in 3 cases could a dural opening be accomplished.

They were used only for fronto-orbital distraction.

Patients with scaphocephaly or trigonocephaly that underwent internal distraction were few and were not included in the series.