Filmprogramm in der Caligari FilmBühne im Rahmen der Internationalen Filmprogramm in der Caligari FilmBühne Veranstalter: Kulturamt Wiesbaden. the Schlachthof Wiesbaden, the Museum Wiesbaden, the Nassauischer Kunstverein Wiesbaden e.V. and the Caligari Filmbühne in the empty City Passage. fri 23 nov pm Caligari FilmBühne sat 24 nov pm Murnau-Filmtheater. WIESBADEN SPECIAL – SHORT FILM COMPETITION. A contest for short films.

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This database was created in and has been developed and curated by Barbara Flueckigerprofessor at the Department of Film Studies, University of Zurich to provide comprehensive information about historical film color processes invented since the end 19th century including specific still photography color technologies that were their conceptual predecessors.

In the University of Zurich and Swiss National Science Foundation awarded additional funding for the elaboration of this web resource. In addition, the Institute for the Performing Arts and Film, Zurich University of the Arts provided a major contribution to the development of the database. Many further persons and institutions have supported the project, see acknowledgements. All the members of the two research projects on film wiesbade, both led by Barbara Flueckiger, have been capturing photographs of historical film prints since Please report errors or suggestions.

We are updating these detail pages on a regular basis. Subscribe to the blog to receive all the news: Thank you so much for your contribution, I am very grateful. Barbara Flueckigerbaflueckiger gmail. We welcome researchers, pfogramm, film historians, film restoration experts to contribute texts, images, links or protramm to this resource. Please contact Barbara Flueckiger to ask for the permission to get access to the authors’ interface.

Already caligxri an account? Authors keep their rights on texts, images or any other information provided. All contributions are subject to a review process by the editor of programk web resource. The development of the project started in fall with stage 1. Each stage necessitated a different financing scheme. We are now in stage 3 and are looking for additional funding by private sponsors. Please use the Stripe interface to pay conveniently online or transfer your financial contribution directly to.

Read more about the financial background of the project on filmcolors. Many graphics, photographs, and text portions that appear on this web page are protected by copyright! Please ask for permission if you would like to use them.

Zauber der Venus

The author has exercised the greatest care in seeking all necessary permissions to publish the material on this website.

Please contact the author immediately and directly progranm anything infringe a copyright nonetheless. Thank you very much for your financial contribution! Each sponsor receives a credit on the acknowledgement page: If caligarii check this box, the name as you enter it including the avatar from your e-mail and comment will be shown in recent donations. Your e-mail address and donation amount will not be shown. Caligari were analyzed for the digital color restoration of the Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Foundation in Wiesbaden.

Caligrai thanks to Paola Ferrari who was responsible for the physical restoration of the nitrate prints and to Marianna De Sanctis at Immagine Ritrovata. See text Flueckiger, Barbara The production of motion picture film it is becoming more common to vary the color of the film either by toning or tinting or by a combination of the two processes.

Toning pdogramm in either wholly or partially replacing the silver image of the positive film by some colored compound, the wiesbacen portions or highlights of the image, consisting of plain caliagri, remaining unaffected and colorless. Tinting, on the other hand, consists of immersing the film in a Solution of dye which colors the gelatine itself, causing the whole picture on the screen to have a veil of color over it.

Dyes are chemically of two different types, acid and basic; wiebaden acid dyes are the alkali salts of organic acids, while basic dyes are the chlorides, sulphates, etc. Any dye suitable for admixture with others to produce intermediate tints should possess the following properties:. The dye should be inert and not attack the gelatine or support. The effect is roughly proportional to the concentration of the dye and to the temperature, and varies with each individual dye.

The hydrolysing action of acid which in many cases is added to assist dyeing. In case a solid acid is employed the heat encountered during projection will greatly accelerate this hydrolysis. The corrosive action of the dye itself.

Dyes vary considerably in this wwiesbaden according to their particular composition. So far, it has not been possible to make any general Classification of dyes in this connection, though nitro compounds appear to be particularly corrosive in their action. The presence of impurities in the dye. These take the form of excessive amounts of loading material such as sodium sulphate or chloride, or small traces of iron, the latter having a tendency to harden the film considerably.


A progrqmm test as to whether a dye has any propensity to produce brittleness is to incubate a sample of film, half of which has been dyed, for about 48 hours at degrees F.

If any difference in brittleness is noticeable between the dyed and the undyed portions so treated after the film has been allowed to stand in the air for some time, the dye is calogari for tinting. Except in very special cases, a dye Solution stronger than 0.

Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari () | Timeline of Historical Film Colors

In tinting, bleeding is of very considerable importance, since, during the periods between rinsing wieabaden dyeing and the placing of the film eiesbaden the drying rack, any drops of water on the surface of the film become more or less saturated with dye, and these after drying remain as spots and irregular markings which are very apparent on the screen. Widsbaden making a selection of dyes therefore, it is necessary to choose only those whose propensity for bleeding is a minimum.

The rate of dyeing should be only slightly affected by the addition of acid to the dye-bath, although most acid dyes are more or less sensitive to acid.

In case the rate of dyeing is appreciably affected by the addition of acid it is possible to take advantage of this fact since a much weaker dye Solution may be employed to obtain a given tint, while an apparently exhausted bath may be revived by adding a small trace of acid. Only a volatile acid such as acetic acid should be used since this will evaporate on drying, while the strength of the acid in the dye-bath should not exceed.

In the case of a bath containing a mixture of dyes, owing to the fact that acid affects some dyes more than others, as the dye-bath becomes exhausted and the acid content changes, the tint obtained will gradually change also.

It is only possible therefore to use acid with any degree of certainty in the case of dye-baths containing a single dye.

Moreover, the wear and tear of the film should not be impaired in any way after dyeing, and even after incubating for 48 hours at degrees F. The dye should not be affected by the acid fixing bath since any fixing Solution accidentally splashed thereon, would destroy the dye immediately. In view of the large number of tints required in commercial work, it is undesirable to keep a separate dye-powder for the preparation of each particular bath, but caligqri to prepare the same progrmam admixture of three or more dyes.

If three only are employed, mixing must be conducted with great precision in order to reproduce any given tint, but this difficulty is removed by the use of intermediate colors. The following six standard dyes have been chosen as fulfilling the above conditions as nearly as possible, and by suitably mixing Solutions of these, almost any desired tint may be obtained. The strength of the dyes may vary slightly from batch pdogramm batch, but this variation is usually so small as not to materially affect the nature of the tint wiexbaden from any particular formula.

The Cine Blue dye appears much redder by artificial light than by daylight, especially before drying the film, as do all calligari containing Prrogramm Blue.

The following formulas are given merely for guidance and should be altered to suit individual requirements. Xaligari of Mixing Dissolve the solid dyes wiesbaren as small an amount of hot water as possible, and filter through fine muslin. Pour hot water over any residue remaining, which should only be slight, in order to ensure thorough Solution of the dye, and dilute the Solution in the tank to the required volume at 65 degrees F.

Only good snappy positive film may be successfully tinted, since tinting tends to reduce contrast. Except in special cases such as fire scenes, sunset and moonlight effects, and the like, it is very undesirable to employ strong tints, since apart from the displeasing effect and irritation to the eye, the dyes produce a slight softening of the gelatine film when used at 80 degrees F.

Should it be necessary to employ concentrated baths in summer, either cool the dye bath or use a suitable hardener. During the winter prrogramm, when it is advisable to treat all film after developing and fixing, with glycerine, the latter may be incorporated with the dye-bath, thereby eliminating an extra Operation. In most cases, however, the addition of glycerine considerably retards the rate of dyeing, so that in order to obtain the same degree of tinting within a period of ten minutes, the concentration of the dye-bath should be increased accordingly.

When delicate tints are employed, the effect is both to remove the contrasty black and white effect, and to add a touch of warmth to the black deposit of silver, even in cases where the highlights are insufficiently stained to be noticeable. The result in many cases is equal to that obtained by partial toning, wiesbadrn example, tint No.


Although temperature has little effect on the rate wiesbwden dyeing with the dyes recommended, when used without the addition of acid it is advisable in all cases to work at 65 to 70 degrees F. In order to duplicate any particular tint with a given dye-bath the film may be dyed either by time or by inspection.

Wiesbaden Biennale

Dyeing by time is reliable if the dye-bath does not contain acid, though if acid is present, in time the acidity decreases, causing a slowing down of the rate of wiesbadej so that it becomes necessary to judge the progress of dyeing by inspection.

If two or more tints of the same color are pgogramm, in order to reduce caligaru number of individual dye-baths to a minimum, it is better to vary the time of dyeing rather than to vary the dilution of the bath, providing the time of dyeing for the lighter tint is not less than one minute, which time is considered a minimum for the production of uniform results and for complete control of the dyeing Operations.

The time of dyeing also depends somewhat on the previous handling of the film. Film which has been fixed in a bath containing ordinary, or chrome alum, dyes more quickly than that treated with plain hypo and hardened with formalin.

It is probable therefore, that small traces of alum are left in the film even after prolonged washing, which serve as a mordant for the dye. The film samples herewith shown were fixed in the regular acid hypo bath, so caligsri if for any reason the tints indicated are progeamm obtained in the time stated, then either the time of dyeing or the dilution of the dye bath should be altered accordingly.

Should the film for any wieshaden be over-dyed, a small Portion of the dye may be removed by washing for 10 to 15 minutes, though the nature of the dyes will permit only slight mistakes to be rectified in this manner.

The baths may be revived at intervals by the addition of more dye, though this procedure wiesbadeb uncertain and it is generally advisable prlgramm mix fresh Solution. The addition of a trace of acetic acid 1 part in will revive an apparently exhausted bath though as stated above, it is only advisable to do this in the case of baths containing a single dye. Before drying films on racks it is advisable to set the rack at a slight angle for a few minutes, to enable the surplus water to drain off more readily through the perforations.

If drums are used for drying it is advisable callgari remove the surplus water by whirling the drum previous to drying. If uniform results are to be obtained, film should never be passed through the projector before either tinting or toning. The twelve tints above are given merely as examples; other tints may be readily obtained by making a trial with a small amount of Solution on a short length of film, taking care to match the caligaei in artificial light and not by daylight, since any dye containing Cine Blue appears redder by artificial light than by daylight.

When matching think of the tint as being made up of one or more of wiesbadeb colors, red, yellow, and blue. Colors wiesabden as orange are made by mixing yellow and red, violet by mixing red and blue, and green by mixing yellow and blue. Browns are obtained by mixing all three colors red, yellow, and blue. When comparing any two particular tints, it is usual to say that one is redder, yellower or bluer than the other, and the two may therefore be matched accordingly.

Almost any tint if delicate may be employed with advantage, though for general use those ranging through pink, rose, orange, yellow, pale green and pale blue are to be recommended; others are for special purposes. It is always desirable to orogramm harmony in color, especially when combining tinting with toning, so that the combination is pleasing to the normal eye. Slight bleeding and insufficient squeegeeing when on the drying rack.

Always carefully remove any surface moisture from the film with a damp chamois, before drying. This is due to the precipitation of the dye caligagi small traces of alum or iron in the water supply. In many localities water is purified by adding alum, and only the smallest trace need be present to throw some of the dye out of Solution.

This occurs only when tinting on the drum with Cine Scarlet, Cine Orange, and Cine Green, but no inconvenience will be caused if the drum is revolved slowly. Eastman Kodak Company